Born in Boston, Massachusetts. Served with U.S. topographic engineers 1858 to 1860. Received M.D. from New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1863. Practiced medicine in Washington, D.C. after 1865. Served as professor of physiology at Columbia University after 1872. Married Mary Augusta Gadsby on April 9, 1885.
Associate editor on the National Medical Journal and associate editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Author of The Currency of the Confederate States of America in 1875. Thirty copies were printed. Collection sold at auction by Edouard Frossard December 22, 1885.
He died in Washington, D.C.
bio: ApCAB SupplementSource credit: Pete Smith, American Numismatic Biographies