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Douglas MacArthur


Born in Little Rock, Arkansas, son of Arthur MacArthur II, brother of Arthur III. Graduated from West Point in 1903. By World War I he had been promoted to colonel and transferred from engineers to infantry. He was promoted to brigadier general in July 1918. He was wounded twice and won many decorations for bravery and leadership.

Married Henrietta Louis Cromwell Brooks February 14, 1922. They were later divorced without children. Married Jean Marie Faircloth April 30, 1937. They had one son.

MacArthur became superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy in June 1919. He headed the U.S. Olympic Committee for the 1928 games in Amsterdam. He was appointed Army Chief of Staff by Herbert Hoover in November 1930. President Franklin Roosevelt appointed MacArthur military advisor to the Philippines in October 1935. One of the officers serving under him was Dwight David Eisenhower. MacArthur resigned from the Army in December 1937 to serve with the Philippine Army. President Roosevelt recalled him to active duty in July 1941 to organize the defense of the Philippines. In March 1942 he withdrew to Australia. As he left. he made his famous promise, "I shall return."

His casualties were high in the Papuan campaign. After that he determined to avoid frontal assaults and attempt to obtain objectives with low losses. President Truman appointed MacArthur Supreme Commander, Allied Powers to accept the Japanese surrender September 2, 1945. He commanded the occupation of Japan.

During the Korean conflict, MacArthur planned and executed the assault at Inchon. Truman and MacArthur disagreed on policy. The President relieved him of command April 11, 1951.

MacArthur resisted efforts to nominate him for president in 1944, 1948 and 1952. He became chairman of the board of Remington Rand. He died at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D. C.

Congress honored MacArthur with a gold medal by act of October 9, 1962. The gold medal was 3 1/8 inch diameter. They were given to people who contributed $1000 to the MacArthur Memorial Foundation. A 1 5/16 inch copy in bronze was offered to the public (Turner 11). The design was by Frank Gasparro. Ten thousand were struck.

bio: DAB; EAB; NCAB 59; WAB; WWWA-4

Source credit: Pete Smith, American Numismatic Biographies


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